Knitting needles are sized in either Metric, American or British sizing. The metric sizing number shows the diameter of the needle in milimeters. American sizing goes from 0 to 50 with 0 the smallest and 50 the largest, and British sizing is reversed from 14 to 000.
Different sizes of knitting needles start with a size 0 and go to a size 15 in us terms, these are standard sizes. A size 0 US is very small and gives a really tight gauge where a size 15 US are big and will give a very loose knit.
Knitting needles come in many sizes and the names of the sizes differ depending on where you are. American sizes go from 0-50 and some can even be found as small as 0000. European sizes generally refer to the diameter of the needle and converts to 2mm to 50mm.