As of 2009, there were about 2.9 million registered nurses in the U.S. Approximately 4.2 percent are African-American. An organization called Minority Nurse offers scholarships. Educational funding for specific groups (age/race/gender/ethnicity/etc) must come from private sources. Several black nurses have made significant contributions to the struggle for equality in the profession, among them Mamie Hale Mary Mahoney and Jessie Scales.